1) AN EARLY CHUMASH INDIAN: The Indians were the first Californians.
A.The Chumash Indians
B. Chumash Indians: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
C. Use Reflections, pages 68-71 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 64-67.
2) JUAN CABRILLO: This European explorer discovered California.
A. Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
B. Juan Cabrillo Biography
C. Use Reflections, page 112 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 86-89.
3) SIR FRANCIS DRAKE: This English explorer sailed to California, and
he was the second person to circumnavigate (sail all the way around) the globe.
A. Sir Francis Drake
B. A Biography of Me, Sir Francis Drake
C. Use Reflections, page 113 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 91.
4) CAPTAIN JAMES COOK
A. James Cook: British Explorer
(The only expedition related to California was his last one.)
B. James Cook at Kids.Net
(Read about his third expedition.)
C. Explorers and Leaders: Captian James Cook
D. Picture of Cook's ship: The Resolution
E. Use Reflections, page 99 and 119.
5) GASPAR DE PORTOLA: He was the captain in the Spanish army who led an
expedition to San Diego to establish the first California Mission.
B.Gaspar de Portola
B. Use Use Reflections, pages 99 and 120-121. Also, use California Adventures in Time and Place, page 106-107.
6) FATHER JUNIPERO SERRA: He was a Spanish priest who established the California missions.
A. Junipero Serra
B. Father Serra
C. Father Junipero Serra
C. Use Reflections, pages 106-109, 123 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 105.
7) CHARACTERS FROM THE NOVEL, CARLOTA, INCLUDING A VAQUERO(A)
A. CARLOTA: A young fictional character who lives on Rancho Dos Hermanos.
B. DON SATURNINO: The patron of Rancho Dos Hermanos, and Carlota's father.
C. DONA DELORES: Don Saturnino's mother, and patrona of the rancho.
(Find a picture of how a patrona dressed in Oh, California, page 97.)
A. Use specific pages from the novel, Carlota, that describe your character.
B. Vaquero Enterprises
C. Use Reflections, pages 156-169 and California Adventures in Place and Time, pages 136-139; 142-147.
8) DONA JUANA BRIONES DE MIRANDA
A. Juana Briones Heritage
B. Juana Briones de Miranda
C. Use Reflections, page 169
9) GENERAL MARIANO VALLEJO: He was a californio, military leader, and ranchero.
A. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
B. General Mariano G. Vallejo
C. Petaluma Adobe State Park
C. Use Reflections pages 158-159 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 139.
10) PIO PICO He was a rancho owner, and the last Mexican governor of California.
A. Life of Pio Pico
B. Pio Pico from San Diego History Center
C. Pio Pico from the Historical Society of Southern California
D. Use Reflections pages 158-9 and 178, and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 160-161.
11) RICHARD HENRY DANA: He was an American who in 1834 traveled to California when it was part of Mexico.
He is the author of Two years Before the Mast, the story of his life at sea.
A. Richard Henry Dana
B. Richard Henry Dana
C. Use Reflections, pages 160-161, California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 144-145
and Oh, California, pages 86-89.
12) KARANA: She is a fictional character based on a real person, Juana Maria,
who was a 19th century member of the Nicoleño Indian tribe.
A. Use the novel, Island of the Blue Dolphins.
B. The Lone Woman of San Nicholas Island
C. Chumash Indians: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
D. Use Reflections, pages 68 -73 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 60-79.
13) IVAN KUSKOV: He was a Russian fur trader who established Fort Ross.
A. Ivan Kuskov
B. Conquest and Colonization: Ivan Kuskov
C. Use California Adventures in Time and Place, page 140-141 and Reflections, page 160.
General Information about Fort Ross State Historic Park
14) JAMES BECKWOURTH: Jim Beckwourth played a major role in the early exploration and
settlement of the American West. He was a mountain man.
A. James Beckwourth
B. James Pierson Beckwourth
C. Use Reflections, page 195 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 173.
15) JEDEDIAH STRONG SMITH: He was a mountain men.
A. Jedediah Smith 1799-1831
B. Jedediah Smith
C. Use Reflections, page 192-193 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 151-152, for Smith.
16) Members of the REED or DONNER families, or THE DOLL
A. The Story of the Donner Party
B. Members of the Donner Party
C. The Fate of the Donner Party
D. The Donner Party Chronology
E. Use the novel, Patty Reed's Doll
F. Use Reflections, pages 202-205 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 154-155
G. More Challenging Reading: Daily Donner Diaries
17) BEAR FLAGGERS: A group of people who wanted California to become a nation, free from Mexico.
A. History of the Bear Flag
B. Bear Flag Revolt
C. California State Capitol Museum: Bear Flaggers
C. Use Reflections, pages 210-211 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 158-159.
18) JESSIE FREMONT: She was the wife of John Fremont, and also a well-known writer.
A. Jessie Benton Fremont
B. Jessie Ann Benton Fremont
C. Use Reflections, page 201 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 159.
19) JOHN C. FREMONT: An American military officer.
A. John Charles Fremont
B. John C. Fremont
C. Use Reflections, pages 201 and 210-211. Also, California Adventures in Time and Place, page 159.
20) PRESIDENT JAMES K. POLK: He was the U.S. president during Gold Rush.
A. James Knox Polk
B. James K. Polk
B. Use Reflections, page 207 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 158, 172.
21) JAMES MARSHALL: Discoverer of gold at Sutter’s Mill in 1848.
A. James Marshall from PBS
B. James Wilson Marshall
C. Picture of James Marshall
D. Use Reflections, pages 226-227 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 170-171.
22) JOHN SUTTER: He was a farmer and merchant who started Sutter’s Fort.
A. Gen. John A. Sutter
B. John Augustus Sutter from PBS
C. Use Reflections, page 199 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 153.
23) BIDDY MASON: She was an African-American woman who came to California as a slave,
became free, and went on to do many good deeds.
A. Bridget "Biddy" Mason
B. Biddy Mason from the Historical Society of Southern California
C. Use Reflections, pages 224-225 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 192.
24) A GOLD MINER (‘49er)
A. The California Gold Rush of 1849
B. Early Gold Mining Methods
C. Going to California (Look at the second paragraph.)
D. Use Reflections, pages 234-235 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 172, 180-181.
25) LEVI STRAUSS: A businessman during the years of the Gold Rush.
A. Levi Strauss: The Originator of "Levis"
B. New Perspectives on the West: Levi Strauss
C. Picture of Levi Strauss
D. Use Reflections, pages 234, 238-239 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 179.
26) DAME SHIRLEY(LOUISE CLAPPE:) A journalist during the Gold Rush.
A. A Lady's Life in the Gold Rush
B. Louise Clappe, Dame Shirley
C. Use Reflections, page 233 and California Adventures in Time and Place, pages 182-183.
27) LOTTA CRABTREE: She was an actress in the Gold Rush days.
A. Lotta Crabtree
B. Lotta Crabtree from the Encyclopedia Britannica
This site shows a good picture of Lotta Crabtree.
D. There is no textbook information, so pleasee use hardcopies of articles.
28) CHARACTERS FROM THE NOVEL, BY THE GREAT HORN SPOON
JACK: A fictional twelve-year-old boy who travels to California's gold diggins.
PRAISEWORTHY: A fictional English butler who travels to
California's gold diggins, with Jack.
A. By the Great Horn Spoon: A Gold Rush Adventure
B. Early Gold Mining Methods
D. You need to read chapters from the novel, By the Great Horn Spoon.
29) MARK TWAIN: He was an author; he write "The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County."
A. Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) in California
B. Mark Twain from PBS
C. Use California Adventures in Time and Place, page 210-214. Mark Twain lived during the time of
the pony express and telegraph.
30) BLACK BART: He is a stagecoach robber whose real name was Charles E. Boles.
A. Black Bart, and Other Adventures, from Wells Fargo History
B. Remarkable Career of "Black Bart"
C. Wanted: Black Bart
D. The Wells Fargo Stagecoach
E. Use the article, "Black Bart: California's Infamous Stage Robber."
31) A RIDER FOR THE PONY EXPRESS
A. Gold Rush Chronicles: The Pony Express
B. When the Pony Express Was in Vogue
C.Westward Expansion: Pony Express
D. The Topic: The Pony Express
D. Use Reflections, pages 274-277, 281and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 212.
32) CHARLOTTE PARKHURST: She was the first woman stagecoach driver.
A. Charley Parkhurst Facts and Legends
B.Those Daring Stage Drivers (scroll down to Charley Parkhurst.)
C. The Wells Fargo Stagecoach
D. A Picture of Charlotte Parkhurst
D. Use California Adventures in Time and Place, page 210-214. Charlotte Parkhurst lived during
the time of the pony express and telegraph.
33) LELAND SANFORD: He was one of the "Big Four" who built California's Central Pacific railroad.
B. Driving the Last Spike
C. The Race to Utah!
E. Use Reflections, pages 288-292 and California Adventures in Place and Time, pages 218-221.
34) THEODORE JUDAH: He was "the father" of the Central Pacific Railroad.
A. Theodore Judah and the Transcontinental Railroad
B. Welcome Aboard!
C. A Practical Plan for Building the Pacific Railroad, By Theodore Judah
35) JOHN MUIR: He was a naturalist.
A. John Muir
B. John Muir, from Netstate
C. Use Reflections, page 25 and California Adventures in Time and Place, page 12-13.